BIOL 211 - CELLULAR AND ORGANSIMAL BIOLOGY
Topic: Review of general chemistry
Chapter 2 sections 2.1, 2.2
Figures used in lecture: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.5a, 2.6, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11
Periodic Table of the Elements - great site, includes good animations
matter, element, atom. proton, neutron, electron, atomic number, atomic mass, isotope, electron shells, ions, ionic bond, covalent bond, polar covalent bond, non-polar covalent bond, hydrogen bonds, solvent, solute, heat capacity, hydroxide ion, hydrogen ion, polarity, cohesion, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, acid, base, acidic solution, basic solution, neutral solution, pH scale, buffer
1. Using a Periodic Table, be able to give the atomic number and mass number for any atom with an atomic number up to 18.
2. Be able to draw the atomic structure for any atom or ion with an atomic number up to 18.
1. Be able to define and describe the differences between ionic bonds, covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and non-polar covalent bonds.
2. Be able to explain how hydrogen bonds, as intermeolecular attractions, differ from the three other intramolecular bonds.
Properties of Water
The polarity of water gives the molecule certain unique properties. You should be able to explain each of the properties and give examples of why each is biologically significant.
1. Water is a good solvent.
2. It takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water.
3. Water is cohesive.
4. Ice floats.
5. Water dissociates into ions.
You should recognize the molecular structure of water, including the location of its partial positive and partial negative charges. Be able to explain how polar molecules such as NaCl dissolve in water and why a solution becomes saturated.
Acids, Bases, pH Scale
Water dissociates into two different ions: H2O à H+1 + OH-1