Lecture Outline for January 19, 2005


Topic: Review of general chemistry

Chapter 2 sections 2.1, 2.2

Figures used in lecture: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.5a, 2.6, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11

Additional Resources

Elements and Atoms

Periodic Table of the Elements - great site, includes good animations


Key Words

matter, element, atom. proton, neutron, electron, atomic number, atomic mass, isotope, electron shells, ions, ionic bond, covalent bond, polar covalent bond, non-polar covalent bond, hydrogen bonds, solvent, solute, heat capacity, hydroxide ion, hydrogen ion, polarity, cohesion, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, acid, base, acidic solution, basic solution, neutral solution, pH scale, buffer


Atomic Structure

1.  Using a Periodic Table, be able to give the atomic number and mass number for any atom with an atomic number up to 18.

2.  Be able to draw the atomic structure for any atom or ion with an atomic number up to 18.


Chemical Bonding

1.  Be able to define and describe the differences between ionic bonds, covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and non-polar covalent bonds.

2.  Be able to explain how hydrogen bonds, as intermeolecular attractions, differ from the three other intramolecular bonds.


Properties of Water

The polarity of water gives the molecule certain unique properties. You should be able to explain each of the properties and give examples of why each is biologically significant.

1. Water is a good solvent.

2. It takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water.

3. Water is cohesive.

4. Ice floats.

5. Water dissociates into ions.

You should recognize the molecular structure of water, including the location of its partial positive and partial negative charges. Be able to explain how polar molecules such as NaCl dissolve in water and why a solution becomes saturated.


Acids, Bases, pH Scale

Water dissociates into two different ions: H2O H+1 + OH-1