BIOL 211 - CELLULAR AND ORGANSIMAL BIOLOGY

Lecture Outline for January 21, 2005

 

Topic: Macromolecules – carbohydrates, lipids

Chapter 2 sections 2.3

Figures used in lecture: 2.13, 2.15, 2.16

Additional Resources

                Condensation and Hydrolysis Reactions – with animations

                Large Molecules – a chapter of the MIT Biology Hypertextbook

                Carbohydrates

Large Molecule Problem Set - online quizzes about macromolecules

               

Key Words

monomer, polymer, dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis, saccharide, monosaccharide, polysaccharide, lipids, insoluble, triglycerides, phospholipids, glycerol, fatty acid, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, amphipathic

Macromolecules

  1. Formation of Macromolecules
  2. Types of Macromolecules

1.        Carbohydrates

2.        Lipids

3.        Proteins

4.        Nucleic Acids

 

Formation of Macromolecules

Dehydration synthesis:

H—monomer—OH + H—monomer—OH  ŕ  monomer—monomer + H2O

Hydrolysis:

monomer—monomer + H2O  ŕ  H—monomer—OH + H—monomer—OH

 

Carbohydrates

monomer = glucose

Functions of polysaccharides:

  1. short-term energy storage

a.        glycogen in animals

b.       starch in plants

2.   structural molecules

a.        cellulose in plant cell walls

b.       chitin in insect exoskeletons

 

Lipid Structure

Triglycerides

                Fats and oils

Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

For long-term energy storage

Phospholipids

                Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate group

                Cell membrane structure