490 SPRING 2002 (SERRANO)
GUIDE FOR EXAM 1
A NOTE ABOUT THE STUDY GUIDE:
Be aware that although the study guide helps review concepts, it is not
all inclusive and other items emphasized in class and the readings and
NOT in the study guide may appear on the exam. The study guide is therefore
a good place to BEGIN exam preparation.
Review the study guide and Chapters 5, 6, 7,
and 8. Lots of info is presented here!
Study your notes and all the relevant chapters.
Know the meaning of all words in the boxes, and italicized. There will
be more DEFINITIONS on this second exam
Review all the images of brain anatomy in Chapter
7 and be able to label structures by filling in the blank. 40% of this
next exam will be taken directly form the textbook pictures of brain anatomy
in chapter 7
Think about what you have learned, talk about
it in a study group.
SYNAPSES, NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND THEIR RECEPTORS
what is meant by spatial/temporal integration
of signals (say at the axon hillock)?
what is a retrograde messenger? give example(s)
What is the difference between retrograde and
anterograde transport? What molecules mediate each ie motor proteins, cytoskeleton?
What molecules and organelles travel by slow,
intermediate and fast axonal transport?
what is the ionic basis of EPSPís? IPSPís?
what happens during temporal summation? Spatial
What is posttetanic potentiation? Long term potentiation?Presynaptic
inhibition? Presynaptic facilitation?
be able to contrast the chemical and electrical
synapses: morphology, speed of transmission, chemicals, etc.
what are gap junctions and how are they formed?
where are they found?
contrast Gray I vs. Gray II synapses.
discuss the cellular and molecular processes
that take place during chemical transmission IN DETAIL. what happens in
the presynaptic cell? the postsynaptic cell? in the cleft? what is the
role of calcium? what is the MEPP? why is neurotransmission quantal? What
happens during vesicle fusion?
what are the basic neurotransmitters? Where are
they made? what are some important differences between small molecular
weight neurotransmitters and neuropeptides?
contrast the NMDA receptor, the non NMDA (AMPA)
receptor. how do both work together to contribute to an EPSP? what is needed
to activate the NMDA receptor?
contrast the muscarinic and nicotinic Ach receptor.
where is each typically found?
what is the difference between ionotropic and
metabotropic receptors? give examples of each.
what is a G protein? what is its basic structure?
how is it activated? how does GTP vs. GDP binding affect G protein function?
how do G proteins affect proteins in both inhibitory and excitatory ways?
how do G proteins cause phosphorylation events? elevation of cAMP levels?
elevation of Ca levels?
What are major brain divisions? How do these
develop from the neural tube?
What are the cranial nerves and what info do
What is the blood brain barrier? What are its
components? Why is it needed? How do molecules cross the blood brain barrier?
be able to explain how taste and olfactory cells
transduce their modality into a RECEPTOR POTENTIAL.
how are taste and smell routed to the CNS? what
synapses are made with second order neurons if any?
what is the structure of the tongue? the olfactory
understand the basic tastes and how they are
encoded. why are taste cells said to be broadly tuned?
how can the brain distinguish between many complex
what are glomeruli? what is unique about the
regenerative capacities of olfactory neurons? what is the connection between
smell and memory and how is this related to the ascending pathways of smell?
what is known about the structure and genetics
of olfactory receptor proteins? what is a G(olf)? What role does G(olf)
play in signaling olfaction?
how is olfactory info spatially and temporally
encoded? how can the brain distinguish between many complex odors?